Pharmacology of Oral Sedatives

Minimal Sedation Renewal
This course is part of Minimal Sedation Renewal
Series View Cost: $144
Course Count: 4
Series Credit Cost: Included
Total Credits: 7
 This series is not included in the annual CE subscription
 You must purchase the entire series in order to view these courses.
 Currently this course is only available if you purchase the entire series.
Dr. Mark Donaldson, Pharmacology of Oral Sedatives
Speaker: Dr. Mark Donaldson
Category: Anesthesia
CE Credits: 2
Format: MP4 Video
This course solidifies the foundation for becoming a more effective prescriber and clinician in assisting dental patients with relaxation. This course covers various oral medications for in-office adu...more
  • Running Time: 1:50:00
  • Released: 7/13/2023
  • Expiration Date: 7/13/2026
  •  This course is not included in the annual CE subscription
CE Details
Credit Details
This electronically delivered self-instructional program is designated for 2 hours of CE credit by Farran Media.
AGD Code: 340.

The fee to view the entire series is $144. This cost includes all fees to take all exams and claim your CE credits.

Providing dental care to patients with anxiety and fear remains a significant challenge for dentists. Despite advancements in management techniques and treatment methods, patients' preexisting opinions and experiences contribute to the persistence of dental anxiety and fear. These apprehensive feelings create psychological barriers that hinder patients from seeking and receiving necessary dental care. Among the various techniques available to help patients cope or reduce procedure-related apprehension, in-office enteral sedation or oral conscious sedation has gained considerable attention.

Dental fear is a learned response, influenced by family, friends and popular media. This attitude often results in a cycle of fear, leading to the avoidance of dental care and the development of dental problems. Dentists employ various techniques to enhance patient comfort during treatment, including distraction techniques, soothing dialogue and positive reinforcement. These strategies effectively manage anxious patients who would otherwise rely on the "white-knuckle" approach. In recent years, there has been a growing utilization of oral benzodiazepines, such as triazolam and lorazepam, either alone or in combination with nitrous oxide, to alleviate perioperative anxiety and fear in dental patients. As a response, state dental boards have revised or introduced new regulations that specify the required training and equipment for administering in-office adult minimal sedation. While there are notable variations among state regulations concerning training and pharmacological approaches for in-office adult minimal sedation, there is agreement on the use of inherently safe medications, the implementation of pulse oximetry, and the availability of emergency equipment, including pharmacologic antagonists. This engaging multimedia course will explore the science and art of oral conscious sedation, offering a dynamic and interactive learning experience. The presentation will delve into the pharmacological foundations of therapeutics, bridging the gap between academic principles and clinical practice. Comprehensive treatment strategies and protocols will be thoroughly discussed, employing a case-based approach to enhance understanding.

Educational Objectives:
Upon completion of this course, you should be able to:
  • Discuss the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
  • Understand the concept of bioavailability and half-life.
  • Describe the continuum of consciousness.
  • List the characteristics of the ideal sedative for in-office use.
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of in-office adult minimal sedation versus other modalities.
  • Describe the mechanism of action and pharmacological properties of the benzodiazepine family of medications.
  • Match the right drug at the right dose to the right patient and the right procedure.
Description of Speaker:
Dr. Mark Donaldson holds a baccalaureate degree from the University of British Columbia (UBC) and a Doctorate in clinical pharmacy from the University of Washington. He is currently the associate principal of clinical pharmacy for Vizient's Advisory Solutions in Whitefish, Montana. He serves as a clinical professor at the University of Montana's Department of Pharmacy and a clinical associate professor at OHSU's School of Dentistry, with affiliate faculty status at UBC. Donaldson has 28 years of experience delivering international lectures on dental pharmacology and therapeutics. He has published extensively and serves on the editorial board for the Journal of the American Dental Association. Additionally, he is board certified in healthcare management and has been recognized for his contributions, receiving the AGD's "Dr. Thaddeus V. Weclew Award" in 2016 and the Canadian Dental Association's "Special Friend of Canadian Dentistry Award" in 2019 for his exceptional support and service to the dental profession.

At the time of the release of this course, the lecturer/speaker declares that in the past 12 months they have had no financial interest, arrangement, or affiliation with any dental companies.

CE Policies
American Dental Association (ADA), Continuing Education Recognition Program (CERP) provider
Farran Media is an ADA CERP Recognized Provider. ADA CERP is a service of the American Dental Association to assist dental professionals in identifying quality providers of continuing dental education. ADA CERP does not approve or endorse individual courses or instructors, nor does it imply acceptance of credit hours by boards of dentistry. Concerns or complaints about a CE provider may be directed to the provider or to ADA CERP at For any questions, please contact Nareg Apelian, DMD, Director of Continuing Education at
American General Dentistry (AGD), Program Approval for Continuing Education (PACE) approved, FAGD / MAGD Credit Farran Media is a nationally approved PACE Program Provider by the Academy of General Dentistry. Approval does not imply acceptance by any regulatory authority or AGD endorsement. The current term of approval extends from 1/1/2023 to 12/31/2026. Provider ID# 304396
This activity meets the educational criteria required for verifiable Continuing Professional Development under the General Dental Council Lifelong Learning scheme and represents 2 hours of verifiable CPD.

Legal Disclaimer:
The CE provider (Farran Media) uses reasonable care in selecting and providing content that is accurate. The CE provider, however, does not independently verify the content or materials. The CE provider does not represent that the instructional materials are error-free or that the content or materials are comprehensive. Any opinions expressed in the materials are those of the author of the materials and not the CE provider. Completing one or more continuing education courses does not provide sufficient information to qualify the participant as an expert in the field related to the course topic or in any specific technique or procedure. The instructional materials are intended to supplement, but are not a substitute for, the knowledge, expertise, skill and judgment of a trained health care professional.

Continuing education credits issued for completion of online CE courses may not apply toward license renewal in all licensing jurisdictions. It is the responsibility of each registrant to verify the CE requirements of his/her licensing or regulatory agency.

State CE Requirements:
Click Here for CE requirements by state. Please note that this information is current as of the time of listing. This information is subject to change at any time from the state boards. For the most up-to-date information, please contact your state board directly.

Refund Policy
There are no refunds for Online CE courses. Please contact technical support if you run into technical difficulty.

CE Contact
For any questions, please contact Nareg Apelian, DMD, Director of Continuing Education at
To reap the full benefits of this CE course, the presenters (Howie Horrocks and Mark Dilatush) have agreed to create a marketing plan specifically tailored to your practice and your specific market area. Having your marketing plan printed and open while you view the course material, will greatly individualize your learning experience.
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